ASTM C1863 - 18

    Standard Test Method for Hoop Tensile Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composite Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature Using Direct Pressurization

    Active Standard ASTM C1863 | Developed by Subcommittee: C28.07

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.01


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 This test method (also known as “tube burst test”) may be used for material development, material comparison, material screening, material down selection, and quality assurance. This test method can also be used for material characterization, design data generation, material model verification/validation, or combinations thereof.

    5.2 Continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs) are composed of continuous ceramic-fiber directional (1D, 2D, and 3D) reinforcements in a fine grain-sized (50 µm) ceramic matrix with controlled porosity. Often these composites have an engineered thin (0.1 to 10 µm) interface coating on the fibers to produce crack deflection and fiber pull-out.

    5.3 CFCC components have distinctive and synergistic combinations of material properties, interface coatings, porosity control, composite architecture (1D, 2D, and 3D), and geometric shapes that are generally inseparable. Prediction of the mechanical performance of CFCC tubes (particularly with braid and 3D weave architectures) may not be possible by applying measured properties from flat CFCC plates to the design of tubes. This is because fabrication/processing methods may be unique to tubes and not replicable to flat plates, thereby producing compositionally similar but structurally and morphologically different CFCC materials. In particular, tubular components comprised of CFCC material form a unique synergistic combination of material, geometric shape, and reinforcement architecture that are generally inseparable. In other words, prediction of mechanical performance of CFCC tubes generally cannot be made by using properties measured from flat plates. Strength tests of internally pressurized CFCC tubes provide information on mechanical behavior and strength for a multiaxially stressed material.

    5.4 Unlike monolithic advanced ceramics that fracture catastrophically from a single dominant flaw, CMCs generally experience “graceful” fracture from a cumulative damage process. Therefore, while the volume of material subjected to a uniform hoop tensile stress for a single uniformly pressurized tube test may be a significant factor for determining matrix cracking stress, this same volume may not be as significant a factor in determining the ultimate strength of a CMC. However, the probabilistic nature of the strength distributions of the brittle matrices of CMCs requires a statistically significant number of test specimens for statistical analysis and design. Studies to determine the exact influence of test specimen volume on strength distributions for CMCs have not been completed. It should be noted that hoop tensile strengths obtained using different recommended test specimens with different volumes of material in the gage sections may be different due to these volume effects.

    5.5 Hoop tensile strength tests provide information on the strength and deformation of materials under stresses induced from internal pressurization of tubes. Nonuniform stress states may be inherent in these types of tests and subsequent evaluation of any nonlinear stress-strain behavior must take into account the asymmetric behavior of the CMC under multiaxial stressing. This nonlinear behavior may develop as the result of cumulative damage processes (for example, matrix cracking, matrix/fiber de-bonding, fiber fracture, delamination, etc.) which may be influenced by testing mode, testing rate, processing or alloying effects, or environmental influences. Some of these effects may be consequences of stress corrosion or subcritical (slow) crack growth that can be minimized by testing at sufficiently rapid rates as outlined in this test method.

    5.6 The results of hoop tensile strength tests of test specimens fabricated to standardized dimensions from a particular material or selected portions of a part, or both, may not totally represent the strength and deformation properties of the entire full-size end product or its in-service behavior in different environments.

    5.7 For quality control purposes, results derived from standardized tubular hoop tensile strength test specimens may be considered indicative of the response of the material from which they were taken for, given primary processing conditions and post-processing heat treatments.

    5.8 The hoop tensile stress behavior and strength of a CMC are dependent on its inherent resistance to fracture, the presence of flaws, or damage accumulation processes, or both. Analysis of fracture surfaces and fractography, though beyond the scope of this test method, is highly recommended.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the hoop tensile strength, including stress-strain response, of continuous fiber-reinforced advanced ceramic tubes subjected to direct internal pressurization that is applied monotonically at ambient temperature. This type of test configuration is sometimes referred to as “tube burst test.” This test method is specific to tube geometries, because flaw populations, fiber architecture, material fabrication, and test specimen geometry factors are often distinctly different in composite tubes, as compared to flat plates.

    1.2 In the test method, a composite tube/cylinder with a defined gage section and a known wall thickness is loaded via internal pressurization from a pressurized fluid applied either directly to the material or through a secondary bladder inserted into the tube. The monotonically applied uniform radial pressure on the inside of the tube results in hoop stress-strain response of the composite tube that is recorded until failure of the tube. The hoop tensile strength and the hoop fracture strength are determined from the resulting maximum pressure and the pressure at fracture, respectively. The hoop tensile strains, the hoop proportional limit stress, and the modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction are determined from the stress-strain data. Note that hoop tensile strength as used in this test method refers to the tensile strength in the hoop direction from the introduction of a monotonically applied internal pressure where ‘monotonic’ refers to a continuous nonstop test rate without reversals from test initiation to final fracture.

    1.3 This test method applies primarily to advanced ceramic matrix composite tubes with continuous fiber reinforcement: unidirectional (1D, filament wound and tape lay-up), bidirectional (2D, fabric/tape lay-up and weave), and tridirectional (3D, braid and weave). These types of ceramic matrix composites can be composed of a wide range of ceramic fibers (oxide, graphite, carbide, nitride, and other compositions) in a wide range of crystalline and amorphous ceramic matrix compositions (oxide, carbide, nitride, carbon, graphite, and other compositions).

    1.4 This test method does not directly address discontinuous fiber-reinforced, whisker-reinforced, or particulate-reinforced ceramics, although the test methods detailed here may be equally applicable to these composites.

    1.5 The test method is applicable to a range of test specimen tube geometries based on the intended application that includes composite material property and tube radius. Lengths of the composite tube, length of the pressurized section, and length of tube overhang are determined so as to provide a gage length with uniform internal radial pressure. A wide range of combinations of material properties, tube radii, wall thicknesses, tube lengths, and lengths of pressurized section are possible.

    1.5.1 This test method is specific to ambient temperature testing. Elevated temperature testing requires high-temperature furnaces and heating devices with temperature control and measurement systems and temperature-capable pressurization methods which are not addressed in this test method.

    1.6 This test method addresses tubular test specimen geometries, test specimen preparation methods, testing rates (that is, induced pressure rate), and data collection and reporting procedures in the following sections:

              Scope

    Section 1

              Referenced Documents

    Section 2

              Terminology

    Section 3

              Summary of Test Method

    Section 4

              Significance and Use

    Section 5

              Interferences

    Section 6

              Apparatus

    Section 7

              Hazards

    Section 8

              Test Specimens

    Section 9

              Test Procedure

    Section 10

              Calculation of Results

    Section 11

              Report

    Section 12

              Precision and Bias

    Section 13

              Keywords

    Section 14

              Appendix

     

              References

     

    1.7 Values expressed in this test method are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI) and IEEE/ASTM SI 10.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 8.

    1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C1145 Terminology of Advanced Ceramics

    C1239 Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics

    D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials

    E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

    E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing

    E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems

    E337 Test Method for Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb Temperatures)

    E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 23.040.15 (Non-ferrous metal pipes); 81.060.20 (Ceramic products)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/C1863-18

    Citation Format

    ASTM C1863-18, Standard Test Method for Hoop Tensile Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composite Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature Using Direct Pressurization, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org

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