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Significance and Use
4.1 Composite materials consist by definition of a reinforcement phase in a matrix phase. In addition, carbon-carbon composites often contain measurable porosity which interacts with the reinforcement and matrix. The composition and structure of the C-C composite are commonly tailored for a specific application with detailed performance requirements. The tailoring involves the selection of the reinforcement fibers (composition, properties, morphology, etc), the matrix (composition, properties, and morphology), the composite structure (component fractions, reinforcement architecture, porosity structure, microstructure, etc.), and the fabrication conditions (forming, assembly, forming, densification, finishing, etc.). The final engineering properties (physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, etc.) can be tailored across a broad range with major directional anisotropy in the properties.
4.2 Specifications for specific C-C composite components covering materials, material processing, and fabrication procedures are developed to provide a basis for fabricating reproducible and reliable structures. Designer/users/producers have to write C-C composite specifications for specific applications with well-defined composition, structure, properties and processing requirements. But with the extensive breadth of selection in composition, structure, and properties in C-C composites, it is virtually impossible to write a "generic" composite specification applicable to any and all C-C composite applications that has the same type of structure and details of the commonly-used specifications for metal alloys. This guide is written to assist the designer/user/producer in developing a comprehensive and detailed material specification for a specific CMC application/component with a particular focus on nuclear applications.
4.3 The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify the constituents, the structure, the desired engineering properties (physical, chemical, mechanical, durability, etc), methods of testing, manufacturing process requirements, the quality assurance requirements, and traceability for C-C composites for nuclear reactor applications. The resulting specification may be used for the design, production, evaluation, and qualification of C-C composites for structures in nuclear reactors.
4.4 The guide is applicable to C-C composites with flat plate, rectangular bar, round rod, and round tube geometries.
4.5 This guide may also be applicable to the development of specifications for C-C composites used for other structural applications, discounting the nuclear-specific chemical purity and irradiation behavior requirements.
1.1 This document is a guide to preparing material specifications for fiber reinforced carbon-carbon (C-C) composite structures (flat plates, rectangular bars, round rods, and tubes) manufactured specifically for structural components in nuclear reactor core applications. The carbon-carbon composites consist of carbon/graphite fibers (from PAN, pitch, or rayon precursors) in a carbon/graphite matrix produced by liquid infiltration/pyrolysis and/or by chemical vapor infiltration.
1.2 This guide provides direction and guidance for the development of a material specification for a specific C-C composite component or product for nuclear reactor applications. The guide considers composite constituents and structure, physical and chemical properties, mechanical properties, thermal properties, performance durability, methods of testing, materials and fabrication processing, and quality assurance. The C-C composite materials considered here would be suitable for nuclear reactor core applications where neutron irradiation-induced damage and dimensional changes are a significant design consideration. ()
1.3 The component specification is to be developed by the designer/purchaser/user. The designer/purchaser/user shall define and specify in detail any and all application-specific requirements for necessary design, manufacturing, and performance factors of the ceramic composite component. This guide for material specifications does not directly address component/product-specific issues, such as geometric tolerances, permeability, bonding, sealing, attachment, and system integration.
1.4 This guide is specifically focused on C-C composite components and structures with flat panel, solid rectangular bar, solid round rod, or tubular geometries.
1.5 This specification may also be applicable to C-C composites used for other structural applications discounting the nuclear-specific chemical purity and irradiation behavior factors.
1.6 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C242 Terminology of Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products
C559 Test Method for Bulk Density by Physical Measurements of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles
C561 Test Method for Ash in a Graphite Sample
C577 Test Method for Permeability of Refractories
C611 Test Method for Electrical Resistivity of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Articles at Room Temperature
C625 Practice for Reporting Irradiation Results on Graphite
C709 Terminology Relating to Manufactured Carbon and Graphite
C714 Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon and Graphite by Thermal Pulse Method
C769 Test Method for Sonic Velocity in Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Materials for Use in Obtaining Youngs Modulus
C816 Test Method for Sulfur in Graphite by Combustion-Iodometric Titration Method
C838 Test Method for Bulk Density of As-Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Shapes
C1039 Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Apparent Specific Gravity, and Bulk Density of Graphite Electrodes
C1179 Test Method for Oxidation Mass Loss of Manufactured Carbon and Graphite Materials in Air
C1198 Test Method for Dynamic Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Sonic Resonance
C1233 Practice for Determining Equivalent Boron Contents of Nuclear Materials
C1239 Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics
C1259 Test Method for Dynamic Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Impulse Excitation of Vibration
C1274 Test Method for Advanced Ceramic Specific Surface Area by Physical Adsorption
C1275 Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature
C1291 Test Method for Elevated Temperature Tensile Creep Strain, Creep Strain Rate, and Creep Time-to-Failure for Advanced Monolithic Ceramics
C1292 Test Method for Shear Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures
C1337 Test Method for Creep and Creep Rupture of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics Under Tensile Loading at Elevated Temperatures
C1341 Test Method for Flexural Properties of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composites
C1358 Test Method for Monotonic Compressive Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperatures
C1359 Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics With Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Elevated Temperatures
C1360 Practice for Constant-Amplitude, Axial, Tension-Tension Cyclic Fatigue of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures
C1425 Test Method for Interlaminar Shear Strength of 1-D and 2-D Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures
C1468 Test Method for Transthickness Tensile Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature
C1470 Guide for Testing the Thermal Properties of Advanced Ceramics
C1525 Test Method for Determination of Thermal Shock Resistance for Advanced Ceramics by Water Quenching
C1557 Test Method for Tensile Strength and Youngs Modulus of Fibers
C1683 Practice for Size Scaling of Tensile Strengths Using Weibull Statistics for Advanced Ceramics
D2766 Test Method for Specific Heat of Liquids and Solids
D3171 Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials
D3529/D3529M Test Method for Matrix Solids Content and Matrix Content of Composite Prepreg
D3800 Test Method for Density of High-Modulus Fibers
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D4018 Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and Graphite Fiber Tows
D4284 Test Method for Determining Pore Volume Distribution of Catalysts and Catalyst Carriers by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry
D4850 Terminology Relating to Fabrics and Fabric Test Methods
D5528 Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
D5600 Test Method for Trace Metals in Petroleum Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)
D5766 Test Method for Open-Hole Tensile Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
D5961 Test Method for Bearing Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
D6484 Test Method for Open-Hole Compressive Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates
D6507 Practice for Fiber Reinforcement Orientation Codes for Composite Materials
D6671 Test Method for Mixed Mode I-Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
D7136 Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite to a Drop-Weight Impact Event
D7137 Test Method for Compressive Residual Strength Properties of Damaged Polymer Matrix Composite Plates
D7219 Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites
D7542 Test Method for Air Oxidation of Carbon and Graphite in the Kinetic Regime
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E111 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus
E132 Test Method for Poissons Ratio at Room Temperature
E143 Test Method for Shear Modulus at Room Temperature
E228 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials With a Push-Rod Dilatometer
E261 Practice for Determining Neutron Fluence, Fluence Rate, and Spectra by Radioactivation Techniques
E289 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Rigid Solids with Interferometry
E408 Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques
E423 Test Method for Normal Spectral Emittance at Elevated Temperatures of Nonconducting Specimens
E1269 Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry
E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
E1461 Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity by the Flash Method
E1922 Test Method for Translaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated and Pultruded Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
E2586 Practice for Calculating and Using Basic Statistics
ICS Number Code 83.120 (Reinforced plastics)
UNSPSC Code 26142100(Nuclear reactor equipment)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM C1783-15, Standard Guide for Development of Specifications for Fiber Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Composite Structures for Nuclear Applications, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.orgBack to Top