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Significance and Use
4.1 The distribution coefficient, Kd, is an experimentally determined ratio quantifying the distribution of a chemical species between a given fluid and solid material sample under certain conditions, including the attainment of constant aqueous concentrations of the species of interest. The Kd concept is used in mass transport modeling, for example, to assess the degree to which the movement of a species will be delayed by interactions with the local geomedium as the solution migrates through the geosphere under a given set of underground geochemical conditions (pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc.). The retardation factor (Rf) is the ratio of the velocity of the groundwater divided by the velocity of the contaminant, which can be expressed as:
|ρb||=||bulk density of the porous medium (mass/length 3) and|
|ηe||=||effective porosity of the medium (unitless) expressed as a decimal.|
4.2 Because of the sensitivity of Kd to site specific conditions and materials, the use of literature derived Kd values is strongly discouraged. For applications other than transport modeling, batch Kd measurements also may be used, for example, for parametric studies of the effects of changing chemical conditions and of mechanisms related to the interactions of fluids with solid material.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of distribution coefficients, Kd, of chemical species to quantify uptake onto solid materials by a batch sorption technique. It is a laboratory method primarily intended to assess sorption of dissolved ionic species subject to migration through pores and interstices of site specific geomedia, or other solid material. It may also be applied to other materials such as manufactured adsorption media and construction materials. Application of the results to long-term field behavior is not addressed in this method. Kd for radionuclides in selected geomedia or other solid materials are commonly determined for the purpose of assessing potential migratory behavior of contaminants in the subsurface of contaminated sites and out of a waste form and in the surface of waste disposal facilities. This test method is also applicable to studies for parametric studies of the variables and mechanisms which contribute to the measured Kd.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D422 Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
D1293 Test Methods for pH of Water
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2217 Practice for Wet Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants
D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
D3370 Practices for Sampling Water from Closed Conduits
D4319 Test Method for Distribution Ratios by the Short-Term Batch Method
D4448 Guide for Sampling Ground-Water Monitoring Wells
D5730 Guide for Site Characterization for Environmental Purposes With Emphasis on Soil, Rock, the Vadose Zone and Groundwater
ICS Number Code 13.080.99 (Other standards related to soil quality); 71.040.40 (Chemical analysis)
UNSPSC Code 11111501(Soil)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM C1733-17, Standard Test Method for Distribution Coefficients of Inorganic Species by the Batch Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.orgBack to Top