ASTM C146 - 94a(2014)

    Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Glass Sand

    Active Standard ASTM C146 | Developed by Subcommittee: C14.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.02

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    Significance and Use

    3.1 These test methods can be used to ensure that the chemical composition of the glass sand meets the compositional specification required for this raw material.

    3.2 These test methods do not preclude the use of other methods that yield results within permissible variations. In any case, the analyst should verify the procedure and technique used by means of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material or other similar material of known composition having a component comparable with that of the material under test. A list of standard reference materials is given in the NIST Special Publication 260, current edition.

    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the chemical analysis of glass sands. They are useful for either high-silica sands (99 % + silica (SiO2)) or for high-alumina sands containing as much as 12 to 13 % alumina (Al2O3). Generally nonclassical, the test methods are rapid and accurate. They include the determination of silica and of total R2O3  (see 11.2.4), and the separate determination of total iron as iron oxide (Fe2O3), titania (TiO2), chromium oxide (Cr2O3), zirconia (ZrO2), and ignition loss. Included are procedures for the alkaline earths and alkalies. High-alumina sands may contain as much as 5 to 6 % total alkalies and alkaline earths. It is recommended that the alkalies be determined by flame photometry and the alkaline earths by absorption spectrophotometry.

    1.2 These test methods, if followed in detail, will provide interlaboratory agreement of results.

    Note 1: For additional information, see Test Methods C169 and Practices E50.

    1.3 The test methods appear in the following order:

    Procedures for Referee Analysis:




     Silica (SiO2)—Double Dehydration


     Total R2O3—Gravimetric


     Fe2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, by Photometric Methods and
      Al2O3 by Complexiometric Titration

    12 – 17

     Preparation of the Sample for Determination of Iron
      Oxide, Titania, Alumina, and Zirconia


     Iron Oxide (as Fe2O3) by 1,10-Phenanthroline Method


     Titania (TiO2) by the Tiron Method


     Alumina (Al2O3) by the CDTA Titration Method


     Zirconia (ZrO2) by the Pyrocatechol Violet Method


     Chromium Oxide (Cr2O3) by the 1,5-Diphenylcarbo-
      hydrazide Method




    Procedures for Routine Analysis:




     Silica (SiO2)—Single Dehydration


     Al2O3, CaO, and MgO—Atomic Absorption Spec-


     Na2O and K2O—Flame Emission Spectrophotometry


     Loss on Ignition (LOI)


    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C169 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Soda-Lime and Borosilicate Glass

    C429 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Raw Materials for Glass Manufacture

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves

    E50 Practices for Apparatus, Reagents, and Safety Considerations for Chemical Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials

    E60 Practice for Analysis of Metals, Ores, and Related Materials by Spectrophotometry

    Other Documents

    NIST Special Publication 260 Standard samples available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology are listed in U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NIST, Special Publication 260 (current edition), Washington, DC 20234.

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 81.040.10 (Raw materials and raw glass)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/C0146-94AR14

    Citation Format

    ASTM C146-94a(2014), Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Glass Sand, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014,

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