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Significance and Use
5.1 Certified reference materials (CRMs) prepared from nuclear materials are generally well characterized and sufficiently homogenous and stable for their intended use. Usually they are certified using the most unbiased and precise measurement methods available, often with more than one laboratory being used on a national or international level, and they are at the top of the metrological hierarchy of reference materials. A graphical representation of a typical national nuclear measurement system is shown in .
FIG. 3 Typical National Nuclear Measurement System
5.2 Working reference materials (WRMs) need to have quality characteristics that are similar to CRMs, although the rigor used to achieve those characteristics is not usually as stringent as for CRMs. Similarly, producers of WRMs should comply with applicable requirements of ISO 17034, which are less stringent for WRMs than the requirements for producers of CRMs. Where possible, CRMs are typically used to calibrate the methods used for establishing reference values assigned to WRMs, thus providing traceability to CRMs as required by ISO/IEC 17025. A WRM is normally prepared for a specific application.
5.3 Because of the importance of having highly reliable measurement data from nuclear material analysis, particularly for material control and accountability purposes, CRMs are used for calibration when available. However, CRMs prepared from nuclear materials are not always available for specific applications. Thus, there may be a need for a laboratory to prepare nuclear material WRMs to meet specific needs. Also, CRMs are often too expensive, or their supply is too limited for use in the quantities needed for long-term, routine use. When properly prepared, WRMs will serve equally well as CRMs for most applications, and using WRMs will help preserve supplies of CRMs.
5.4 Difficulties may be encountered in the preparation of RMs from nuclear materials because of the chemical and physical properties of the materials. Chemical instabilities, problems in ensuring stoichiometry, homogeneity, and radioactivity are among the factors to be considered, with all three factors being involved with some materials. Those preparing WRMs from nuclear materials need to be aware of how these factors may affect preparation, as well as being aware of the other criteria governing the preparation of reliable WRMs.
1.1 This guide covers the preparation and characterization of working reference materials (WRM) that are produced by a laboratory for its own use in the analysis of nuclear fuel cycle materials. Guidance is provided for proper preparation, packaging, and storage; requirements for characterization; homogeneity and stability considerations; and establishing traceability of WRMs to certified reference materials by a defined, statistically sound characterization process. While the guidance provided is generic for nuclear fuel cycle materials, detailed examples for some materials are provided in the appendixes.
1.2 This guide does not apply to the preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRM). Refer to ISO 17034 and Guide 35 for those requirements.
1.3 The information provided by this guide is found in the following sections:
Perform WRM Planning
Select, Collect, Prepare, and Process Materials
Packaging and Store Materials
Perform Homogeneity Study
Perform Stability Studies
Perform Uncertainty Analysis
Carry Out WRM Utilization and Monitoring
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. Any non-SI units of measurement shown in parentheses are for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C859 Terminology Relating to Nuclear Materials
C1009 Guide for Establishing and Maintaining a Quality Assurance Program for Analytical Laboratories Within the Nuclear Industry
C1068 Guide for Qualification of Measurement Methods by a Laboratory Within the Nuclear Industry
C1108 Test Method for Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry
C1165 Test Method for Determining Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry in H2SO4 at a Platinum Working Electrode
C1168 Practice for Preparation and Dissolution of Plutonium Materials for Analysis
C1210 Guide for Establishing a Measurement System Quality Control Program for Analytical Chemistry Laboratories Within the Nuclear Industry
C1267 Test Method for Uranium by Iron (II) Reduction in Phosphoric Acid Followed by Chromium (VI) Titration in the Presence of Vanadium
C1297 Guide for Qualification of Laboratory Analysts for the Analysis of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials
C1347 Practice for Preparation and Dissolution of Uranium Materials for Analysis
C1625 Test Method for Uranium and Plutonium Concentrations and Isotopic Abundances by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry
C1637 Test Method for the Determination of Impurities in Plutonium Metal: Acid Digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) Analysis
C1672 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Plutonium Isotopic Composition or Concentration by the Total Evaporation Method Using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer
C1689 Practice for Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
ICS Number Code 27.120.30 (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM C1128-18, Standard Guide for Preparation of Working Reference Materials for Use in Analysis of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.orgBack to Top