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**Significance and Use**

4.1 ASTM thermal test method descriptions are complex because of added apparatus details necessary to ensure accurate results. As a result, many users find it difficult to locate the data reduction details necessary to reduce the data obtained from these tests. This practice is designed to be referenced in the thermal test methods, thus allowing those test methods to concentrate on experimental details rather than data reduction.

4.2 This practice is intended to provide the user with a uniform procedure for calculating the thermal transmission properties of a material or system from standard test methods used to determine heat flux and surface temperatures. This practice is intended to eliminate the need for similar calculation sections in the ASTM Test Methods (C177, C335, C518, C1033, C1114, C1199, and C1363) by permitting use of these standard calculation forms by reference.

4.3 This practice provides the method for developing the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for a specimen from data taken at small or large temperature differences. This relationship can be used to characterize material for comparison to material specifications and for use in calculations programs such as Practice C680.

4.4 Two general solutions to the problem of establishing thermal transmission properties for application to end-use conditions are outlined in Practice C1058. (Practice C1058 should be reviewed prior to use of this practice.) One is to measure each product at each end-use condition. This solution is rather straightforward, but burdensome, and needs no other elaboration. The second is to measure each product over the entire temperature range of application conditions and to use these data to establish the thermal transmission property dependencies at the various end-use conditions. One advantage of the second approach is that once these dependencies have been established, they serve as the basis for estimating the performance for a given product at other conditions. Warning— The use of a thermal conductivity curve developed in Section 6 must be limited to a temperature range that does not extend beyond the range of highest and lowest test surface temperatures in the test data set used to generate the curve.

**1. Scope**

1.1 This practice provides the user with a uniform procedure for calculating the thermal transmission properties of a material or system from data generated by steady state, one dimensional test methods used to determine heat flux and surface temperatures. This practice is intended to eliminate the need for similar calculation sections in Test Methods C177, C335, C518, C1033, C1114 and C1363 and Practices C1043 and C1044 by permitting use of these standard calculation forms by reference.

1.2 The thermal transmission properties described include: thermal conductance, thermal resistance, apparent thermal conductivity, apparent thermal resistivity, surface conductance, surface resistance, and overall thermal resistance or transmittance.

1.3 This practice provides the method for developing the apparent thermal conductivity as a function of temperature relationship for a specimen from data generated by standard test methods at small or large temperature differences. This relationship can be used to characterize material for comparison to material specifications and for use in calculation programs such as Practice C680.

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.5 This practice includes a discussion of the definitions and underlying assumptions for the calculation of thermal transmission properties. Tests to detect deviations from these assumptions are described. This practice also considers the complicating effects of uncertainties due to the measurement processes and material variability. See Section 7.

1.6 This practice is not intended to cover all possible aspects of thermal properties data base development. For new materials, the user should investigate the variations in thermal properties seen in similar materials. The information contained in Section 7, the Appendix and the technical papers listed in the References section of this practice may be helpful in determining whether the material under study has thermal properties that can be described by equations using this practice. Some examples where this method has limited application include: (1) the onset of convection in insulation as described in Reference (1); (2) while a phase change is taking place in one of the insulation components causing an unsteady-state condition; and (3) the influence of heat flow direction and temperature difference changes for reflective insulations.

1.7 *This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.*

**2. Referenced Documents** *(purchase separately)* The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

**ASTM Standards**

C168 Terminology Relating to Thermal Insulation

C177 Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus

C335 Test Method for Steady-State Heat Transfer Properties of Pipe Insulation

C518 Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus

C680 Practice for Estimate of the Heat Gain or Loss and the Surface Temperatures of Insulated Flat, Cylindrical, and Spherical Systems by Use of Computer Programs

C1033 Test Method for Steady-State Heat Transfer Properties of Pipe Insulation Installed Vertically

C1043 Practice for Guarded-Hot-Plate Design Using Circular Line-Heat Sources

C1044 Practice for Using a Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus or Thin-Heater Apparatus in the Single-Sided Mode

C1058 Practice for Selecting Temperatures for Evaluating and Reporting Thermal Properties of Thermal Insulation

C1114 Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Thin-Heater Apparatus

C1199 Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Transmittance of Fenestration Systems Using Hot Box Methods

C1363 Test Method for Thermal Performance of Building Materials and Envelope Assemblies by Means of a Hot Box Apparatus

E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process

**ICS Code**

ICS Number Code 17.200.10 (Heat. Calorimetry)

**UNSPSC Code**

UNSPSC Code

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**DOI:** 10.1520/C1045-19

**Citation Format**

ASTM C1045-19, Standard Practice for Calculating Thermal Transmission Properties Under Steady-State Conditions, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2019, www.astm.org

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