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    ASTM B761 - 17

    Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Metal Powders and Related Compounds by X-Ray Monitoring of Gravity Sedimentation

    Active Standard ASTM B761 | Developed by Subcommittee: B09.03

    Book of Standards Volume: 02.05

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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This test method is useful to both producers and purchasers of powders, as outlined in 1.1 and 1.2, in determining particle size distribution for product specifications, manufacturing control, development, and research.

    4.2 Users should be aware that sample concentrations used in this test method may not be what is considered ideal by some authorities, and that the range of this test method extends into the region where Brownian movement could be a factor in conventional sedimentation. Within the range of this test method, neither the sample concentration nor Brownian movement are believed to be significant.

    4.3 Reported particle size measurement is a function of both the actual particle dimension and shape factor as well as the particular physical or chemical properties being measured. Caution is required when comparing data from instruments operating on different physical or chemical parameters or with different particle size measurement ranges. Sample acquisition, handling, and preparation can also affect reported particle size results.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of particle size distributions of metal powders. Experience has shown that this test method is satisfactory for the analysis of elemental tungsten, tungsten carbide, molybdenum, and tantalum powders, all with an as-supplied estimated average particle size of 6 μm or less, as determined by Test Method B330. Other metal powders (for example, elemental metals, carbides, and nitrides) may be analyzed using this test method with caution as to significance until actual satisfactory experience is developed (see 7.2). The procedure covers the determination of particle size distribution of the powder in the following two conditions:

    1.1.1 As the powder is supplied (as-supplied), and

    1.1.2 After the powder has been deagglomerated by rod milling as described in Practice B859.

    1.2 This test method is applicable to particles of uniform density and composition having a particle size distribution range of 0.1 up to 100 μm.

    1.2.1 However, the relationship between size and sedimentation velocity used in this test method assumes that particles sediment within the laminar flow regime. This requires that the particles sediment with a Reynolds number of 0.3 or less. Particle size distribution analysis for particles settling with a larger Reynolds number may be incorrect due to turbulent flow. Some materials covered by this test method may settle with Reynolds number greater than 0.3 if particles greater than 25 μm are present. The user of this test method should calculate the Reynolds number of the largest particle expected to be present in order to judge the quality of obtained results. Reynolds number (Re) can be calculated using the flowing equation

    Equation B0761-17_1


    D   =   the diameter of the largest particle expected to be present,
    ρ   =   the particle density,
    ρ0   =   the suspending liquid density,
    g   =   the acceleration due to gravity, and
    η   =   is the suspending liquid viscosity.

    A table of the largest particles that can be analyzed with Reynolds number of 0.3 or less in water at 35°C is given for a number of metals in Table 1. A column of the Reynolds number calculated for a 30–μm particle sedimenting in the same liquid system is given for each material also.
    (A) Reynolds number calculated for 30 μm particle sedimenting in water at 35°C, with a density of 0.9941 g/cm3 and viscosity of 0.7225 cp.

    1.3 Units—With the exception of the values for density and the mass used to determine density, for which the use of the gram per cubic centimetre (g/cm3) and gram (g) units is the longstanding industry practice, the values in SI units are to be regarded as standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard information is given in Section 7.

    1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    B330 Test Methods for Estimating Average Particle Size of Metal Powders and Related Compounds Using Air Permeability

    B821 Guide for Liquid Dispersion of Metal Powders and Related Compounds for Particle Size Analysis

    B859 Practice for De-Agglomeration of Refractory Metal Powders and Their Compounds Prior to Particle Size Analysis

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.160 (Powder metallurgy)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/B0761-17

    Citation Format

    ASTM B761-17, Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Metal Powders and Related Compounds by X-Ray Monitoring of Gravity Sedimentation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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