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This specification covers the requirements for electroplated nickel coatings applied to metal products for engineering applications (for example, for use as a buildup for mismachined or worn parts), for electronics applications (including as underplates in contacts or interconnections), and in certain joining applications. Coatings shall be available in any one of the following types: Type 1, coatings electroplated from solutions not containing hardeners, brighteners, or stress control additives; Type 2, electrodeposits used at moderate temperatures, and contain sulfur or other codeposited elements or compounds that are present to increase the hardness, refine grain structure, or control internal stress; and Type 3, electroplates containing dispersed submicron particles such as silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, and aluminum oxide that are present to increase hardness and wear resistance at specified temperatures. Metal parts shall undergo pre- and post-coating treatments to reduce the risk of hydrogen embrittlement, and peening. Coatings shall be sampled, tested, and conform accordingly to specified requirements as to appearance, thickness (measured either destructively by microscopical or coulometric method, or nondestructively by magnetic or X-ray method), adhesion (examined either by bend, file, heat and quench, or push test), porosity (assessed either by hot water, ferroxyl, or flowers of sulfur test), workmanship, and hydrogen embrittlement relief.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers the requirements for electroplated nickel coatings applied to metal products for engineering applications, for example, for use as a buildup for mismachined or worn parts, for electronic applications, including as underplates in contacts or interconnections, and in certain joining applications.
1.2 Electroplating of nickel for engineering applications ( ) requires technical considerations significantly different from decorative applications because the following functional properties are important:
1.2.1 Hardness, strength, and ductility,
1.2.2 Wear resistance,
1.2.3 Load bearing characteristics,
1.2.4 Corrosion resistance,
1.2.5 Heat scaling resistance,
1.2.6 Fretting resistance, and
1.2.7 Fatigue resistance.
Note 1: Functional electroplated nickel coatings usually contain about 99 % nickel, and are most frequently electrodeposited from a Watts nickel bath or a nickel sulfamate bath. Typical mechanical properties of nickel electroplated from these baths, and the combined effect of bath operation and solution composition variables on the mechanical properties of the electrodeposit are given in Guide . When electroplated nickel is required to have higher hardnesses, greater wear resistance, certain residual stress values and certain leveling characteristics, sulfur and other substances are incorporated in the nickel deposit through the use of certain addition agents in the electroplating solution. For the effect of such additives, see Section and . Cobalt salts are sometimes added to the plating solution to produce harder nickel alloy deposits.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
B183 Practice for Preparation of Low-Carbon Steel for Electroplating
B242 Guide for Preparation of High-Carbon Steel for Electroplating
B252 Guide for Preparation of Zinc Alloy Die Castings for Electroplating and Conversion Coatings
B253 Guide for Preparation of Aluminum Alloys for Electroplating
B254 Practice for Preparation of and Electroplating on Stainless Steel
B281 Practice for Preparation of Copper and Copper-Base Alloys for Electroplating and Conversion Coatings
B320 Practice for Preparation of Iron Castings for Electroplating
B322 Guide for Cleaning Metals Prior to Electroplating
B343 Practice for Preparation of Nickel for Electroplating with Nickel
B374 Terminology Relating to Electroplating
B480 Guide for Preparation of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys for Electroplating
B487 Test Method for Measurement of Metal and Oxide Coating Thickness by Microscopical Examination of Cross Section
B499 Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thicknesses by the Magnetic Method: Nonmagnetic Coatings on Magnetic Basis Metals
B507 Practice for Design of Articles to Be Electroplated on Racks
B530 Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thicknesses by the Magnetic Method: Electrodeposited Nickel Coatings on Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Substrates
B558 Practice for Preparation of Nickel Alloys for Electroplating
B568 Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thickness by X-Ray Spectrometry
B571 Practice for Qualitative Adhesion Testing of Metallic Coatings
B602 Test Method for Attribute Sampling of Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
B697 Guide for Selection of Sampling Plans for Inspection of Electrodeposited Metallic and Inorganic Coatings
B765 Guide for Selection of Porosity and Gross Defect Tests for Electrodeposits and Related Metallic Coatings
B809 Test Method for Porosity in Metallic Coatings by Humid Sulfur Vapor (Flowers-of-Sulfur)
B832 Guide for Electroforming with Nickel and Copper
B849 Specification for Pre-Treatments of Iron or Steel for Reducing Risk of Hydrogen Embrittlement
B850 Guide for Post-Coating Treatments of Steel for Reducing the Risk of Hydrogen Embrittlement
B851 Specification for Automated Controlled Shot Peening of Metallic Articles Prior to Nickel, Autocatalytic Nickel, or Chromium Plating, or as Final Finish
D762 Method of Test for Hot Extraction of Asphaltic Materials and Recovery of Bitumen by the Modified Abson Procedure
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D3951 Practice for Commercial Packaging
F519 Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments
ICS Number Code 25.220.40 (Metallic coatings)
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ASTM B689-97(2018)e1, Standard Specification for Electroplated Engineering Nickel Coatings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.orgBack to Top