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This specification establishes the general requirements common to wrought copper and copper alloy rods, bars, shapes, and forgings. Products shall be manufactured by hot working, cold working, or both, and finished by cold working, annealing, or heat treatment and straightening as identified necessary to meet the properties specified. Materials shall be sampled and prepared, then tested accordingly to examine their conformance to dimensional (mass, diameter, length, straightness, and edge contours), mechanical (tensile strength, Rockwell hardness, elongation, and hydrogen embrittlement), electrical resistivity, chemical composition, and grain size requirements. The products shall also meet performance requirements when subjected to residual stress, mercurous nitrate, ammonia vapor, and semiguided bend tests. In the event of conflict between this specification and the individual casting product specifications, the requirements of the casting specification shall take precedence.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
Significance and Use
12.1 For the purpose of determining compliance with the specified limits for requirements of the properties listed in the following table and for dimensional tolerances, an observed value or a calculated value shall be rounded as indicated in accordance with the rounding method of Practice .
Rounded Unit for Observed or
nearest unit in the last right-hand
significant digit used in expressing the
nearest ksi [5 MPa]
nearest 1 %
Under 0.060 mm
nearest multiple of 0.005 mm
0.060 mm and over
nearest 0.01 mm
1.1 This specification establishes the general requirements common to wrought copper and copper alloy rod, bar, shapes, and forgings which shall apply to Specifications , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and to the extent referenced therein.
1.2 The chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties, and all other requirements not included in this specification are prescribed in the product specification.
1.3 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined.
1.3.1 Within the text the SI values are given in brackets.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
B16/B16M Specification for Free-Cutting Brass Rod, Bar and Shapes for Use in Screw Machines
B21/B21M Specification for Naval Brass Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B98/B98M Specification for Copper-Silicon Alloy Rod, Bar and Shapes
B124/B124M Specification for Copper and Copper Alloy Forging Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B138/B138M Specification for Manganese Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B139/B139M Specification for Phosphor Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B140/B140M Specification for Copper-Zinc-Lead (Red Brass or Hardware Bronze) Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B150/B150M Specification for Aluminum Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B151/B151M Specification for Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloy (Nickel Silver) and Copper-Nickel Rod and Bar
B154 Test Method for Mercurous Nitrate Test for Copper Alloys
B187/B187M Specification for Copper, Bus Bar, Rod, and Shapes and General Purpose Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B193 Test Method for Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials
B194 Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar
B196/B196M Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy Rod and Bar
B283/B283M Specification for Copper and Copper-Alloy Die Forgings (Hot-Pressed)
B301/B301M Specification for Free-Cutting Copper Rod, Bar, Wire, and Shapes
B371/B371M Specification for Copper-Zinc-Silicon Alloy Rod
B411/B411M Specification for Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy Rod and Bar
B441 Specification for Copper-Cobalt-Beryllium, Copper-Nickel-Beryllium, and Copper-Nickel-Lead-Beryllium Rod and Bar (UNS Nos. C17500, C17510, and C17465)
B453/B453M Specification for Copper-Zinc-Lead Alloy (Leaded-Brass) Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B455 Specification for Copper-Zinc-Lead Alloy (Leaded-Brass) Extruded Shapes
B570 Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy (UNS Nos. C17000 and C17200) Forgings and Extrusions
B577 Test Methods for Detection of Cuprous Oxide (Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility) in Copper
B846 Terminology for Copper and Copper Alloys
B858 Test Method for Ammonia Vapor Test for Determining Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking in Copper Alloys
B870 Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy Forgings and Extrusions Alloys (UNS Nos. C17500 and C17510)
B900 Practice for Packaging of Copper and Copper Alloy Mill Products for U.S. Government Agencies
B927/B927M Specification for Brass Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B929 Specification for Copper-Nickel-Tin Spinodal Alloy Rod and Bar
B967/B967M Specification for Copper-Zinc-Tin-Bismuth Alloy Rod, Bar and Wire
B974/B974M Specification for Free-Cutting Bismuth Brass Rod, Bar and Wire
B981/B981M Specification for Low-Leaded Brass Rod, Bar, Wire, and Shapes
D4855 Practice for Comparing Test Methods
E3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens
E8/E8M Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
E18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials
E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
E53 Test Method for Determination of Copper in Unalloyed Copper by Gravimetry
E54 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Special Brasses and Bronzes
E62 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper and Copper Alloys (Photometric Methods)
E75 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper-Nickel and Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloys
E76 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Copper Alloys
E112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
E118 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper-Chromium Alloys
E121 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper-Tellurium Alloys
E255 Practice for Sampling Copper and Copper Alloys for the Determination of Chemical Composition
E290 Test Methods for Bend Testing of Material for Ductility
E478 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Copper Alloys
E581 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Manganese-Copper Alloys
ICS Number Code 77.150.30 (Copper products)
UNSPSC Code 31133100(Copper forgings); 30102409(Copper rods)
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ASTM B249 / B249M-20, Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Alloy Rod, Bar, Shapes and Forgings, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top