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    Multiple Stressor Effects in Relation to Declining Amphibian Populations

    Linder G, Krest S, Sparling D, Little E
    Published: 2003

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    Original research discusses the protocols and approaches to studying the effects of multiple environmental stressors on amphibian populations and gives new perspectives on this complicated subject. This new publication integrates a variety of stressors that can act in concert and may ultimately cause a decline in amphibian populations.

    Sixteen peer-reviewed papers cover:

    Toxicity Assessment examines methods, which range from long-established laboratory approaches for evaluating adverse chemical effects to amphibians, to methods that link chemicals in surface waters, sediments, and soils with adverse effects observed among amphibians in the field.

    Field and Laboratory Studies illustrates studies in the evaluation of multiple stressor effects that may lead to declining amphibian populations. A range of laboratory and field studies of chemicals, such as herbicides, insecticides, chlorinated organic compounds, metals, and complex mixtures are also included.

    Causal Analysis demonstrates the range of tools currently available for evaluating "cause-effect" relationships between environmental stressors and declining amphibian populations.

    Audience: This new publication is a must-have for scientists and resource management professionals from diverse fields, including ecotoxicology, chemistry, ecology, field biology, conservation biology, and natural resource management.

    Table of Contents

    The History and Development of FETAX (ASTM Standard Guide, E-1439 on Conducting the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus)

    The FETAX of Today — and Tomorrow

    AMPHITOX: A Customized Set of Toxicity Tests Employing Amphibian Embryos

    Investigation of Frog Abnormalities on National Wildlife Refuges in the Northeast U.S.

    Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Water and Sediment from National Wildlife Refuge Sites Using a Modified Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay- Xenopus (FETAX)

    Determination of Malathion Aerial Drift and Associated Effects to the Endangered Wyoming Toad (Bufo baxteri) Using Surrogate Woodhouse's Toads (Bufo woodhousii) at Mortenson and Hutton Lake National Wildlife Refuges and Potential Reintroduction Sites

    Synergistic Effects of a Combined Exposure to Herbicides and an Insecticide in Hyla versicolor

    Ammonium Perchlorate Disruption of Thyroid Function in Natural Amphibian Populations: Assessment and Potential Impact

    Interaction Between Perchlorate and Iodine in the Metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    Using Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) to Assess the Toxicity and Teratogenicity of Aquatic Amphibian Habitats

    Methods for Testing the Combined Effects of Contamination and Hibernation on Terrestrial Amphibians

    Integrated Field and Laboratory Tests to Evaluate Effects of Metals-Impacted Wetlands on Amphibians: A Case Study from Montana

    The Role of Multiple Stressor Causes in Declining Amphibian Populations: A Wingspread Workshop Summary

    Establishing Cause-Effect Relationships for Chemical Stressors in Amphibians: Providing Adequate Data for the ERA

    Multiple Causes for the Malformed Frog Phenomenon

    Establishing Causality in the Decline and Deformity of Amphibians: The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative Model

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Committee: E47

    DOI: 10.1520/STP1443-EB

    ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5486-5

    ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-3464-5