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Concrete ranks very high among the commonly used construction materials. However, it is subject to attack by corrosive agents, including acids, salts, water, and organic solvents that wet exposed surfaces and penetrate into pores. Penetration of the concrete by water and aqueous solutions is especially important where the concrete is exposed to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. In order to make the concrete more resistant to attack through these agencies, thereby increasing the life of the structure, it is sometimes coated with materials which protect the surface by preventing the ingress of water and other aggressive liquids into the concrete. Patches to replace defective or deteriorated areas are required frequently. Since concrete is weak in bond, the concrete to be patched is frequently coated with an adhesive that will promote bonding between the patching material and the hardened concrete. Organic materials which have been used for bonding, patching, or sealing of concrete include epoxy resins, silicones, bitumens, linseed oil, oil-based paints, acrylics, urethanes, vinyls, rubber-base or resin-base coatings, and polyester resins. Epoxy resin systems are the most versatile for these uses.
Smith, M. R.