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This article summarizes the body of available standards for sampling of chemical and biological agents on workplace surfaces, including skin. These standards consist of voluntary consensus standards such as those promulgated by ASTM International, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), as well as methods produced by U.S. Federal agencies such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Gaps in availabilities of standards are discussed along with activities underway to address needs in the field of occupational and environmental hygiene. In many cases, the available standards have been developed largely in response to regulatory requirements. For example, ASTM International standards, which describe requirements for wiping surfaces and methodologies for determining metals and metalloids such as lead and beryllium, were produced primarily in response to regulatory requirements for sampling settled dust for these elements in the United States. Methods for collection of asbestos samples, vacuum sampling, dry wipe sampling, and bulk sampling have also been promulgated. Standardized methods for non-metal contaminants and biological agents are more limited in availability. In particular, there is a lack of standardized methodologies for dermal sampling and limited standard guidance on selection of appropriate surface sampling methods and data evaluation. Activities are currently ongoing within ASTM International and ISO to address some of the gaps, but additional activity is needed to address remaining requirements for consensus standards.
dermal exposure, sampling, skin, standard, surface, workplace
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH
Brisson, Michael J.
White, Kenneth T.
Virginia Beach, VA