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A D-T fusion cycle produces five times more neutrons per unit of energy released than a fission cycle, with about twice the damage energy and the capability to produce ten times more hydrogen, helium, and transmutation products than fission neutrons. With other parameters, they determine the lifetime of construction materials for low plasma-density fusion reactors (Tokamak, Tandom-Mirror, etc.), which require a first wall. To make fusion power reactors economically feasible, the first wall and blanket materials must withstand a dose approaching 300 to 400 dpa. Arguments are presented that demonstrate that today's simulation techniques using existing fission reactors and charged particle beams are excellent tools for studying the underlying basic physical phenomena of the evolving damage structures, but are not sufficient to provide a valid technological data base for the design of economical fusion power reactors. Therefore, the construction of an intense, high-energy neutron source is mandatory for the development and adequate testing of Prime Candidate Alloys (PCA).
The Joint Research Center (JRC) has conducted studies on the feasibility of using spallation neutrons to simulate the Tokamak fusion reactor first wall conditions. It can be shown that spallation neutrons produced by 600-MeV protons impinging on a thin lead target simulate the fusion reactor first wall conditions as well as, or even better than, neutron sources based on the D-Li stripping or D-T fusion reactor. Comparing an optimized spallation neutron source of equal beam power with a D-Li neutron source, we find the following Figure of Merit,
accelerators, neutron generators, neutron source facilities, spallation neutron sources, spallation fragments, spallation products, nuclear fragments, damaging neutron fluence, neutron economy, neutron transport theory, irradiation rigs, irradiation devices, irradiation plant
Advisor, Joint Research Center—Ispra Establishment, Ispra, VA
Bishop, George R.
Director, Joint Research Center—Ispra Establishment, Ispra, VA
Research scientist at JRC-Ispra, BHABHA Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Bombay,
Perlado, Jose Manuel
Professor, Nuclear-Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Insenieros Industriales, Madrid,