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    A Review of Pb-Free High-Temperature Solders for Power-Semiconductor Devices: Bi-Base Composite Solder and Zn-Al Base Solder

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    Pb-base high-temperature solders (mass % Sn=5–10, melting point (m.p.)=300–310°C) are widely applied under severe conditions, although the harmful nature of Pb is recognized. Bi-base alloys (m.p. of Bi=270°C), Zn-base alloys (m.p. of Zn=420°C), and several Au-base eutectic alloys (m.p. of Au-20Sn and Au-3.6Si=280 and 363°C, respectively) are proposed as candidates for Pb-free high-temperature solders. This paper reviews the features of Bi-base composite solders containing reinforcement particles of a superelastic Cu-Al-Mn alloy in a Bi matrix to relax thermal stress and to prevent the propagation of cracks, and Zn-Al base solders, which have high stability and high reliability enough to be utilized in practical applications under severe thermal cycle tests between −40 and 230°C more than 2000 cycles.


    high-temperature solder, intermetallic compound (IMC), thermal cycle test

    Author Information:

    Takaku, Y.
    Tohoku Univ., Sendai,

    Ohnuma, I.
    Tohoku Univ., Sendai,

    Yamada, Y.
    Toyota Central R&D Laboratories, Inc., Ai-chi,

    Yagi, Y.
    Toyota Central R&D Laboratories, Inc., Ai-chi,

    Nakagawa, I.
    Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi,

    Atsumi, T.
    Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi,

    Shirai, M.
    Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi,

    Ishida, K.
    Tohoku Univ., Sendai,

    Committee/Subcommittee: F01.03

    DOI: 10.1520/STP49321S