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Many of the difficulties that arise during the industrial use of water are closely related to water-formed sludges, scales, and corrosion products. The composition of such deposits can be interpreted to provide a guide for practical preventive treatment of either the water or its environment. In the proper hands, complete and detailed information concerning water-formed deposits can be useful; unless this information is accurate, however, it can be misleading. Accordingly, reliable methods should be available for the analysis of carefully selected samples. The chemical analysis of water-formed deposits presents a challenge to the analyst's skill and causes him to muster all the knowledge of his profession. The usual quantitative analysis will yield the elemental composition of the major constituents of such deposits, but other tools must be used to determine accurately the combinations of these elements. These include the spectrograph, biological and petrographic microscopes, and X-ray diffraction equipment described in Chapter VIII. It is often possible to determine the source or cause of water-formed deposits from the results of chemical and physical analyses. The treatment for removal or prevention of such deposits can thus be accomplished scientifically instead of by trial and error.