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Industrial water always contains impurities consisting of substances present in the supply water or added, intentionally or unintentionally, during its use. The character and quantity of the impurities depend on the environmental and service conditions to which the water is exposed. Methods of analysis applicable to both industrial supply or process waters and to industrial waste waters are discussed in this chapter. The difference between the two types of waters is often only academic. In fact, waste water from one industrial process may become the supply water for another process. Industrial supply or process waters may contain higher concentrations of some constituents than some industrial waste waters. From the analytical standpoint, the same methods can often be used for both types of waters. Selection of constituents to be measured and methods of analysis for supply waters is based on the need for determining the suitability of the supply for a process use. Similarly, selection of constituents to be measured and the methods of analysis for waste water is based on determining the suitability of the water for reuse, disposal, or treatment prior to disposal.