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Primary standard samples, comprising a group of about 50 samples in rod form, are issued by the National Bureau of Standards for use in the analysis of plain carbon and low-alloy steels. The Battelle Memorial Institute has issued a series of primary standards for the determination of aluminum in steel. A series of secondary standards is provided by the firm of Adam Hilger Ltd. which sells sets of steel rods for use in visual spectroscopic analysis by means of the Hilger “Steeloscope.” In addition to the solid rods, standards in chip form are also issued by the National Bureau of Standards, primarily for chemical analysis. These samples cover a wide variety of types of irons and steels, including cast iron, plain carbon steels, and low- and high-alloy steels. Under proper conditions, for example, when the test material is in similar form and when the method is adapted to handling this form, the chip samples may be employed as spectrographic standard samples. The various standard steel samples are discussed in detail below.