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For many engineering purposes it is not feasible to measure the shear strength of sand or gravel in the laboratory. In such cases estimates of internal friction can be based upon the grading of the aggregate. This paper presents the results of an attempt to correlate internal friction with grain size and shape for cohesionless material. Direct shear tests were run on river gravel and on crushed basalt. When no binder or cement is present, aggregates of uniform size are more stable than aggregates whose greater density is obtained by the addition of fractions of finer size.
Hennes, R. G.
Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.