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The application of instruments in the field of chemical analysis has grown rapidly in the last few years and has been due mainly to recent large-scale advances in electronics and related fields of instrumentation. These have led to improved models of familiar instruments of standard type and to many new instruments heretofore unavailable. Since this equipment serves the dual purpose of increasing the number of chemical determinations that can be made per man-day and decreasing the cost per determination, it is making analytical techniques more widely available as a means of manufacturing and quality control. The extent of this progress is strikingly shown in the techniques for metal analysis. The spectrophotometer has made possible more rapid colorimetric methods for determining composition. The spectrograph for quantitative work, using photographic recording, and more recently the direct reading spectrograph are causing a virtual revolution in analytical methods. X-ray diffraction instruments of both the film and direct-reading type have been found to be very useful in work on metals and the X-ray fluorescence scheme of determining composition has shown considerable possibility as a supplement to spectrographic methods. With a reduction in cost of analysis the use of the analytical laboratory as a production tool has increased. Laboratories specifically designed for the control of manufacturing processes are often built adjacent to the particular process and used for that purpose alone. With the advent of the new high-speed spectrographs this practice is becoming popular.
Webster, R. R.
Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa.