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The appearance of bare and finished metal surfaces is becoming more important, especially to the automotive and architectural fields. The metals industry, however, is behind the paint, plastics, and paper industries in the development of methods for instrumental appearance measurements of metal products. Metals are optically different from nonmetals because of free electron movement, and thus nonmetal measurement techniques are not generally applicable. A complete analysis of metallic appearance requires complex combinations of spectrophotometric and goniophotometric curves. By isolating attributes which can be related directly to observed appearance and correlated with physical properties, simpler instrumental measurement techniques can be developed. These attributes can be divided arbitrarily into color and geometric attributes. As described in this paper, the color attributes of metallic appearance are shininess, hue, and saturation. The geometric attributes are haze, distinctness of image, luster, surface texture, and directionality.
metallic appearance, gloss, metals, brightness, surface properties, goniophotometers, reflection, evaluation, tests
Hunter, R. S.
President, Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc., Fairfax, Va.