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All streams and other water bodies contain sediment in variable quantity and character. Methods for measurement of these sediments are affected by the sediment mode (suspended or deposited), by the characteristics of the water body, and by the spacial and temporal variations of the sediments. The purpose of this chapter is to indicate some of the needs for sediment measurements, describe some of the more common sediment environments in which it may be necessary to make measurements, and provide general references to the commonly used methods for making these measurements. Many activities in the conservation, development, and utilization of land, mineral, and water resources affect sediment movement and thereby may create sediment-related problems. For example, a change in the runoff regime from a drainage basin may concentrate or disperse sediment in the stream channel and, in turn, affect the flow capacity of the stream. Because of the complex interrelationships that affect sedimentation phenomena, a knowledge of climate, the physical attributes of drainage basins, the hydraulic and hydrologic characteristics of streamflow, and the quantitative and qualitative aspects of sediment is required to solve sediment problems.