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The purification of water for industrial use can be very complex or relatively simple, depending upon the properties of the raw water and the degree of purity required. There are many methods and combinations in use, but all are covered in three basic processes: physical, chemical, and physicochemical treatment. A fourth basic process, biological treatment, is often employed where waste water must be purified before it may be discharged. This process takes advantage of the ability of living microorganisms to induce a variety of chemical and physicochemical reactions. Treatment of waste water is usually a much more complicated operation than the production of process water of appropriate quality. This chapter discusses these processes as they are used in the treatment of industrial water and waste water and outlines some of the technical problems and basic considerations involved.