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This paper reviews briefly the state-of-the-art in two aspects of the design of deep foundations for dynamic and earthquake loads: (a) definition of the loads and (b) methods of analysis. These are placed within the general context of foundation design. Included in this review are comments on the papers presented to this session of the symposium. Presently used methods for describing dynamic loads in foundation analysis are examined, and it is pointed out that techniques for defining wave and seismic loadings need improvement and that statistical methods should, when possible, be utilized in defining these loads. Methods of analysis are reviewed, and it is concluded that numerical methods based on the lumped mass and finite and discrete element techniques appear to offer the greatest potential for use in the design of deep foundations under dynamic loads.
foundations, piles, dynamic loads, earthquake resistant structures, dynamic tests, cyclic loads, pile driving, foundation analysis, downdrag, pile structures, soil mechanics, evaluation, tests
ChiefPersonal member ASTM, Materials Research & Development, Inc., Woodward-Clyde & Associates, Oakland, Calif.