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Microscopical techniques have been applied to studies of failure mechanisms in plastics. The studies were concerned with crazing, erosion due to wetting and drying, and failure in tension as a function of a number of variables. The light-optical techniques included phase-contrast, microinter-ferometric, and schlieren as well as brightfield techniques. Electron microscopy of surface replicas was also employed. An attempt was made to correlate the observations with mode of failure.
Newman, Sanford B.
National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.