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Consideration is given to the implications of the data on the wetting of textiles that is obtained by the use of a hydrometer method. This method permits a much more detailed study of the wetting process than is possible by the more usual methods. Some effects of rate of immersion of skeins of gray cotton yarn, skein density, solution temperature, and mechanical action are described. This work suggests a resolution of the wetting of textiles into two independent processes. One of these, the escape of occluded gas, is essentially mechanical. The other, the rate of advance of the liquid phase into the mass to be wet, is a physico-chemical problem. Some studies of the time dependence of the surface tension of solutions of surface active agents are also described and discussed. It appears that the rates of surface tension lowering correlate quite well with wetting agent performance.
Gruntfest, I. J.
Research Laboratories, Rohm and Haas Co., Philadelphia, Pa