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    Comparative Calorimetric Measurements of Chemical Heat Packs

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    Rescue teams use chemical heat packs to warm up persons in a state of accidental hypothermia or to warm up infusion tubes at low outdoor temperatures. The results of calorimetric measurements of four different chemical heat packs have made possible calculation of the following quantities: (a) the total amount of heat produced by each chemical heat pack, and (b) the time course of the heat output of each chemical heat pack. The results are discussed in relation to the application of chemical heat packs to persons in a state of accidental hypothermia.


    chemical heat packs, calorimetric measurements, hypothermia, accidental hypothermia, skiing safety, skiing trauma

    Author Information:

    Ennemoser, Oswald
    University assistant, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,

    Ambach, Walter
    Head of department, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,

    Flora, Gerhard
    Head of department, Universitäts Klinik für Chirurgie, Innsbruck,

    Committee/Subcommittee: F27.65

    DOI: 10.1520/STP46662S