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    Control of Torsion and Bending of the Lower Extremity During Skiing

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    Field measurements during skiing experiments simultaneously recorded the complete excitation of the toe and heel of one foot, the absolute spatial orientation of the pelvis and the foot, muscle activity at the hip, knee, and ankle, and the complete rotation of the femur in relation to the tibia across the knee in three test subjects. Data were transmitted from test subjects during the skiing experiments by a 100 kbits/s PCM-FM system and recorded in digital form. Analyses of field data show that the magnitude of the loading applied to the lower extremity during normal skiing often exceeds the expected, quasi-static, ultimate strength of the tibia. Anterior-posterior bending of 580 N ∙ m has been recorded during skiing, without binding release (release setting <300 N∙m) or injury to the test subject. The standard heel binding design which controls the heel hold-down force cannot effectively control the bending moment in the lower extremity during skiing. The vertical force at the toe was found to provide a good measure of bending in the tibia. Longitudinal rotation across the knee was in phase with, though not proportional to, the applied torsion at the foot by the ski. These results indicate the increased complexity of the injury and protection problems.


    biomechanics, skiing injuries, lower extremity injuries, tibial injuries, knee sprains, ski binding design, instrumentation, dynamometer, goniometer, electromyogram (EMG), skiing safety, skiing trauma

    Author Information:

    Kuo, Chen Y.
    Graduate students, University of California, Berkeley, CA

    Louie, James K.
    Graduate students, University of California, Berkeley, CA

    Mote, C. D.
    Professor and vice chairman, University of California, Berkeley, CA

    Committee/Subcommittee: F27.10

    DOI: 10.1520/STP46629S