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The theoretical concepts of Helmholtz and Schmid are analyzed with respect to their consequences on electroosmotic water transmission in clay systems as a function of their porosities. New experimental evidence is adduced which proves the general validity of the Schmid concept, but which also shows a determinant influence of the hydration behavior of the system on the electroosmotic transmission picture. This influence makes electroosmosis a new and promising, non-destructive tool for probing into the hydration behavior of clay and similar systems. For this purpose, a simple apparatus was designed which permits measuring of electroosmotic transmission in swelling systems at definite porosities that remain unchanged throughout the experiment.
Winterkorn, Hans F.
Professor of Civil Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.