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Discerning customers and more rigorous applications of impact imaged documents demand better understanding of ink release from typewriter ribbons. Considerable effort has been expended toward this end; unfortunately, the results of this effort have not been utilized fully by printing mechanism designers and ink formulators. For this reason an attempt is made to bridge the gap between mechanical and chemical variables by addressing those parameters affected by both. Regarding ink transfer from carbon or film ribbons, the transfer mechanism involves brittle fracture at character edges and release by generation of a shear stress at the ink substrate interface or within the ink film, depending upon the physical nature of the film. Evidence supporting this theory has been collected through literature search, observation during printer and ribbon development, and from measurements of ink release stresses.
impact printing, ink transfer, typewriter ribbons, shear stress, paper elasticity, impact dynamics, evaluation, tests
Slaughter, G. T.
Senior engineer, International Business Machine Corp., Lexington, Ky.