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The unique features of X-ray spectrographic analysis of solutions with specific advantages and limitations which they impose are enumerated. Pretreatment of samples, types of media or substrates in which the element is sought, and cells for containing the sample are briefly considered. Several methods of standardizing by using different types of intensity reference are illustrated. Matrix effects are discussed and methods to cope with them are presented. Typical applications involving both aqueous and nonaqueous substrates are cited from the literature to illustrate the progress made in recent years using the liquid sample approach.
Gunn, E. L.
Humble Oil & Refining Co., Baytown, Tex.