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Spectroscopic research in the USSR is carried on in a wide variety of research establishments—in universities, in research institutes of the Academy of Sciences, and in institutes of various industries. To the author's knowledge there is no central direction of the research programs. The Soviet Union begins by giving its future spectroscopists a sound educational foundation. At the University of Moscow, all third year physics students carry out experiments on infrared and Raman spectroscopy, emission spectrography including effects of source conditions, fluorescence and phosphorescence studies, Zeeman effect and determination of flame temperatures using various spectroscopic techniques. Those students choosing optics as their major field repeat these experiments during their next two years, but do so on a more sophisticated level. Instruments are first developed in the research laboratories and then, when the demand for their use is great enough, the manufacturing is taken over by a central optical factory in Leningrad. The “commercial” infrared spectrometers are essentially copies of the Perkin-Elmer Models 12 and 21, except that a continuously pumped vacuum bolometer is used as the detector. The performance is considerably poorer with resolution for the double-beam instrument about 10 cm−1 at 1000 cm−1 with a scanning time, from 2 to 15 μ, of 45 min. The only photoconductive detectors in use are room temperature lead sulfide cells. According to one of their physicists, they must make their own photoconductive detectors. Hence, the non-use of them is readily understandable. There appears to be no prism-grating combination in use to give high performance in the infrared.
Rea, D. G.
California Research Corp., Richmond, Calif.