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Every element of the 102 that have been discovered has at least one radioactive isotope. Therefore, any discussion of the handling of radioactive materials that attempted to cover all elements would be as varied as the properties of all the elements. There are still seven elements, however, whose emission spectra have not been observed—francium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, and the still unnamed element of atomic number 102. When one speaks of radioactive elements, one usually means the group of elements of atomic number greater than xenon including the rare earths, thorium, uranium, and the elements of atomic number greater than uranium. This paper deals more specifically with the actinide group, the elements beyond thorium.
Conway, John G.
University of California, Berkeley, Calif.