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Metallic surfaces are exceedingly complex both in physical structure and chemical composition. They are composed of crystals differing in size, orientation, and density of defects or dislocations in contact with intergranular or interstitial debris of amorphous or fractured character. Extraneous metals may be incorporated in the crystal lattice or occluded as discrete phases. Chemical compound contaminants may be embedded in the surface. Finally, there are edges, corners, tilted planes, and the scratches and abrasions produced in the metallurgical operations of manufacture and surface preparation.
Burns, R. M.
Senior Scientist, Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, Calif.