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Ryan (this Conference) has observed the formation of considerable surface charging for silicates cleaved at 10−10 torr. This charging is stable, apparently non-uniform on a macroscopic scale, persists to 10−4 torr, and contributes significantly to the adhesion. Additional observations have been that the resultant force field is of such a nature that it can rotate the samples into alignment, and that while on some occasions the samples are attracted to any metal in the vicinity on other occasions there is no attraction. This paper considers mechanisms which could be responsible for this charging; in particular, the electronic structure of crystalline dislocations and non-uniform impurity distributions which produce charge mosaics.
Grossman, Jack J.
Douglas Aircraft Company,