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Direct flow measurements using heat-pulsing techniques provide an accurate and economic method of determining direction of ground-water flow. The use of this method requires that care be taken in choice of well screen, methods of installation, measurement procedure, and method of data handling. The influence of well slot number, slot size, and screen configuration is explained. Drilling without using drilling fluid additives is recommended for installation. The use of coarse and instead of gravel packing for the annular region also improves readings. Hydraulic conductivity and field porosity variation in annular packing versus the natural stratum is dealt with by a new calibration procedure. The use of vector analysis for this data handling is recommended. A procedure involving convergence of down-gradient direction and mean vector sum for direct flow measurement is offered to provide answers to the old question of whether enough wells have been installed for understanding flow in the natural stratum.
ground water, flowmeters, monitoring well, screen design, measurement, field procedures
K-V Associates, Inc., Analytical Systems, Falmouth, MA