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Various procedures and associated instrumentation that have been used to measure the absolute or change in strain, deformation, and stress in rock are reviewed. The merits, limitations, and undesirable features in each procedure are discussed. The results of a number of in situ investigations in various rock types are presented, together with an appraisal of the state of stress that generally exists around underground openings in various types of rock. The report is concluded with recommendations for specifying the performance and characteristics of this class of equipment.
rock, rock mechanics, stress analysis, strain measurement, stress relief, borehole deformation, flatjacks, in situ, rock stresses
Science adviser—mining research, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Denver, Colo.