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(a) These methods cover the determination of hardness in industrial water. The following three methods are included: Sections Referee Method (Gravimetric) 5 to 10, Non-Referee Method A (Volumetric Titration) 11 to 17, Non-Referee Method B (Soap Titration) 18 to 23. (b) The referee method is the most dependable for industrial water of unknown composition. The non-referee methods are simpler but less accurate in the presence of interferences. When interferences do not exceed the specified limits in concentration, non-referee method A is as accurate as the referee method. Non-referee method B is preferable if the soap-consuming power of the sample is the principal consideration.