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This paper summarizes investigations made throughout a 5-yr period at Stevens Institute of Technology on (1) the effect of low-temperature storage on the tendency of various tin alloys to undergo transformation, and (2) the possibility of shortening the incubation period of the reaction so that investigations of this phenomenon might be expedited. Evidence is presented that small amounts of bismuth and antimony are effective, as additions to tin and tin-lead solder alloys, in preventing the transformation of the tin during storage at 32F and below. It is proposed that a floor as well as a ceiling be fixed for these impurities in ASTM Specification B 32.2 Some observations on the occurrence, or non-occurrence of transformation in electroplated and hot-dipped coatings of tin and tin alloys are also included. Experiments are described which involved inoculation and strain as agents to accelerate the transformation of white to gray tin.
Professor of Metallurgy, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J.