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The application of electron microscopy to metallography requires the study of thin replicas of etched metal surfaces. The replica reproduces the contour of the metal surfaces, the contour variations being reproduced as thickness variations in the replica. The process of etching may introduce artifacts because of stains and undercutting. The formation of stains cannot be tolerated for they may adhere to the replica when it is stripped off or obscure the true structure if they do not strip off; etch undercutting will cause distortion in mechanically stripped replicas.
Austin, A. E.
Principal Chemist, Battelle Memorial,