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    Engineering Requirements and Trends for Metals in the Non-Ferrous Roasting, Smelting and Refining Industry

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    The processes of thermal metallurgical treatment of metallic ores and concentrates to accomplish the recovery of the metals consist of three general divisions or steps:

    1. Roasting of the ores or concentrates.

    2. Smelting of the ores or concentrates:

    (a) Reduction to matte followed by conversion of the matte to crude metal.

    (b) Direct reduction to the crude or refined metal.

    3. Refining of the crude metal.

    Author Information:

    Brown, R. E.
    Sales Engineer, Electro Metallurgical Sales Corp., San Francisco, Calif.

    Committee/Subcommittee: A01.13

    DOI: 10.1520/STP43867S