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Materials systems can be represented mathematically by constitutive equations which define the relations between forcing functions and the responses. An important feature of materials systems subjected to cyclic load is the damping. For purposes of damping studies materials systems may be identified as uniform materials, members, material composites, and structural interfaces. A variety of motivations and levels of approach can be associated with each of these categories, and each has an appropriate set of units and nomenclature. In spite of the variety of mechanisms and types of materials systems, damping phenomena can, in general, be classified under two major categories (rate-dependent and rate-independent), and each of these under two subcategories (quadratic and nonquadratic). Certain general features can be identified under this classification system. A variety of tests has been used to study both these general features and the specific properties of specific materials.
Lazan, B. J.
Professor and head, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn