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Subcommittee XI on Electron Microstructure of Metals of ASTM Committee E-4 on Metallography first became interested in direct transmission electron microscopy of metal foils in 1958, as a result of published reports of the successful transmission microscopy of aluminum and stainless steel. In these papers it was noted that dislocations and other lattice defects could be detected in the electron images. The subcommittee undertook to investigate the method in order to assess it in relation to established replica techniques. The results of this assessment are outlined in this report, the primary purpose of which is to provide a guide for metallographers as to the additional information that may be obtained by transmission microscopy. The difficulties and limitations of the method are also indicated, and some comments regarding the experimental techniques are included. It is not the purpose of this report to discuss in detail the interpretation of electron images of crystalline foils; this has been the subject of several recently published papers (see Bibliography, Appendix I).