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With the aid of X-ray topography it has been possible to make considerable advances in the characterization and understanding of lattice defects in materials. While coarse lattice defects can be detected by methods based on reflectivity contrast, fine lattice defects can be revealed sensitively by methods based on phase contrast. Diffraction methods are being presented which supplement the topographic methods and render them more quantitative. Since lattice defects on a scale smaller than those resolvable by X-ray topographic methods can be disclosed by transmission electron microscopy, it is expected that for the detection of the defect structure of solids the X-ray and electron microscopy methods will be closely correlated in the near future. Such intimate correlation study is expected to gain in impetus in view of the recent development of high-power electron microscopes, namely, 500 and 1000-kw scopes, which permit the investigation of thicker specimens than was hitherto possible.
metallography, X-ray diffraction, crystallography, microstructure, crystal lattice defects, electron microscopes, topography
Personal member ASTM, Materials Research Laboratory, College of EngineeringThe State University, RutgersNew Brunswick, N. J.