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This paper is presented as a review, not of the literature, but of the techniques of quantitative microstructural analysis. It contains all of the important relationships which permit the estimation of the geometric properties of three-dimensional structures from measurements made upon both sections (reflection microscopy) and slices (transmission microscopy) taken through the structure. The emphasis is upon what geometric properties are accessible to quantitative determination and upon the nature of the assumptions that underlie their measurement. An appreciable part of the content is devoted to semiquantitative methods, that is, to the analysis of systems in which one or more simplifying geometric assumptions are permissible. The inclusion of a section on the statistics of microstructural analysis, which deals with methods for estimating the number of measurements required to obtain a given level of accuracy, makes this paper selfcontained.
metallography, microstructure, microscopy, analysis
DeHoff, R. T.
Associate professor, College of Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.