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Treatments of the experimental data necessary to obtain the fundamental rheological parameters stress, strain, and rate of strain are presented, and some typical viscometers used to obtain flow data under steady-state conditions are described. With proper evaluation of the data, the same parameters are obtained independently of design and irrespective of whether the material exhibits Newtonian or non-Newtonian flow. As examples, flow curves are shown for such diverse materials as ASTM 103 oil, an 11 per cent solution of ethyl cellulose in cyclohexanone, a viscose solution, and five solutions of different concentrations of nitrocellulose in n-butyl acetate.
The manner in which elastic effects such as the normal stresses may be bserved in the various steady-state instruments is explained. Then, by examples, it is shown that such effects are not only quite large at high shearing stresses but may also be correlated independently of instrument. The examples used are five solutions of nitrocellulose in n-butyl acetate and seven solutions of different concentrations of polyisobutylene in Decalin.
Brodnyan, J. G.
Rohm & Haas Co., Philadelphia, Pa
Gaskins, F. H.
Aeroprojects, Inc., West Chester, Pa
Esso Research and Engineering Co., Linden, N. J.