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It is well known that modern semiconductor devices are extremely sensitive to impurities. For this reason it is necessary to control the gaseous ambient in which they operate by hermetic encapsulation. Although neither the effective levels of contamination nor the identity of the contaminating gas has been rigidly established, leakage or diffusion into the device must be kept at a minimum in order to have a device with a very long lifetime. Leak rates usually are given in terms of a “standard leak rate.” This is the rate which would be measured on a given leak under certain arbitrary standard conditions such as 1 atmos on one side of the leak and 0 atmos on the other. The units commonly in use are the cu cm atmos per sec and the cu cm mm per sec or cu cm Torr per sec. The first is the gas volume in cu cm at 1 atmos pressure per sec; the second is the volume at 1 mm of Hg pressure per sec. One cu cm atmos per sec is roughly equal to 103 cu cm mm per sec. The cu cm atmos per sec will be used in this paper.
Maurer, D. W.
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N. J.