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Water, while essential to industry, can cause serious difficulty and damage in industrial processes if not properly controlled. Water difficulties can be considered on the basis of their causes or their results. The two are closely, and sometimes confusingly, interrelated. A single cause, such as corrosion, may result in staining of paper, damage to pumps, or obstruction of pipe lines. A single effect, such as the failure of boiler tubes, may be caused by internal or external corrosion, poor circulation, scale formation, or the baking of sludge on the tube surface. Operating personnel first observe undesired effects and then ascertain causes.