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Cite this document
Composite as well as sequential sampling techniques are examined with regard to their applicability in urban runoff studies. While inexpensive composite sampling is adequate for the determination of the total pollutant yield from a watershed, the study of variation in pollutant concentration requires sequential sampling.
A rational approach to the development of a sequential sampling program is proposed, weighing the cost of data acquisition against the detail and significance of the information obtained. The design of such a program is based on the adoption of an empirical model for the variation of runoff quality and on the techniques of prediction analysis.
Practical aspects of sampling installations are also considered. Such considerations include the depth of sample withdrawal in a nonhomogeneous media, the capability of a sampler to collect solids, sample cross-contamination, and synchronization between flow records and collected samples.
water quality, water pollution, sampling, waste water, urban areas, environmental tests
Research scientist, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario