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    Control of Underwater Earthwork at Hugh Keenleyside (Arrow) Dam

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    The Hugh Keenleyside Dam was constructed to a large extent by placing earthwork below the water surface using barge dumping and other underwater techniques Construction of the underwater earthwork was controlled largely by divers' observations and various sampling methods carried out from the water surface. Equipment and methods tended to be more successful when rugged and simple. Rapid survey control was essential. Large scale field tests were a major means of relating construction and design.


    earthwork, earth dams, underwater construction, underwater excavation, silts, glacial till, sands, gravel, disposal, field tests, site survey, geological surveys, hydrographic surveys, diving, control, echo sounding

    Author Information:

    Bazett, DJ
    Soil engineer, C.B.A. Engineering, Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia

    Foxall, RG
    Project engineer, British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, British Columbia

    Committee/Subcommittee: D18.11

    DOI: 10.1520/STP38800S