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Throughout the world engineers use many types of static-cone penetration tests. These vary from shallow tests employing hand-pushed cone penetrometers of small diameter to larger penetrometers pushed with machines capable of a thrust of 20 or more tons. This article discusses only the equipment and methods for deep sounding, with “deep” implying sufficient depth penetration capability to investigate nonrock soils to the depths required for the proper soil engineering for structural foundations. Usually this requires equipment capable of at least a 5-ton thrust.
Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla